Right of Way

WHEN THE MONTANA Department of Transportation approached the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes about widening the portion of U.S. Highway 93 that bisects the Flathead Indian Reservation, the tribes resisted. They first wanted assurances that any highway expansion would address the spirit that defines this region of prime wildlife habitat and natural wonders. The primary goal for the tribes was to mitigate the impact of the road on wildlife.

While people view highways as a means of getting from one place to another, to wildlife they are just the opposite: a barrier. Highways turn contiguous habitat into haphazardly fragmented islands where animals must either find their way across, or learn to feed, roam, and reproduce in an increasingly limited area. Four grizzlies were killed in traffic collisions between 1998 and 2010 on the Flathead reservation section of highway. Thousands of deer and western painted turtles also perished, along with countless other animals, including mountain lions, wolves, and moose.

Collaboration between the tribes and highway engineers, with help from Montana State University and Defenders of Wildlife, led to the creation of the most progressive and extensive wildlife-oriented road design program in the country. The 56-mile segment of Highway 93 now contains 41 fish and wildlife underpasses and overpasses, as well as other protective measures to avoid fatalities. As creatures become accustomed to the crossings, usage is increasing — at last count, the number was in the tens of thousands. Motion cameras have captured does teaching their young to run back and forth through the crossings, much like human mothers teach their children to safely cross a street.

Wildlife crossing structures are such a smart idea that it’s difficult to understand why they’re still a rarity in this country. But by insisting on rebuilding highway infrastructure to address the needs of wildlife, the Salish and Kootenai tribes have led the way toward a greater sensitivity to fragmented habitats. Highway departments around the country are now studying their example.

— Andrew D. Blechman


  1. I wish Texas was so forward thinking! There are stretches of highways and freeways across Texas that are notorious for motorists crashing into deer crossing especially at dusk and the early morning hours. Some of these result in severe injury or death for both the animal and the people involved. How wonderful if this could become part of planning for new highways and retrofitting or repair of existing ones across the entire nation!

  2. Greetings Orion Magazine,

    With human population growth and expanding highways intersecting fragmented habitat, it is a worthy consideration when compared to the alternative. Human and wildlife fatality come at a cost.

  3. wildlife overpasses and underpasses were used in the Netherlands more than 20 years ago and have been both in use and under study in western Canada for more than a decade. It is surprising that seem a new idea in the southwest.

  4. I have heard of concerns that these can be areas of focus for predators. While certainly better than nothing, do they make highways ok? Which species can benefit and which ones don’t? What is the total impact on species. Insects killed by all of the cars I doubt are studies for example. I do think it is a great small step forward though, and a movement towards living together.

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