AMID THE 150-YEAR-OLD GRAVESTONES of a Gold Rush–era cemetery in downtown Sacramento, Jaime Pawelek spends at least one day a month searching for roving spirits. They are tiny and fiendishly quick, and they are not always on their best behavior.
Take the diminutive headbonker. Properly known as Anthidium maculosum, the headbonker is a California-native bee species. The males are fiercely territorial and unafraid to take on intruders bigger than themselves. “I saw one run off a honeybee earlier,” says Pawelek, a University of California, Berkeley, undergrad whose freckles have been drawn out by the blazing August sun. “It knocked right into a honeybee and chased it out.”
Headbonkers have, on occasion, even chased Pawelek and other researchers: the bee earned its epithet after one male (which, unlike the females, don’t sting) repeatedly bounced itself off the forehead of one of Pawelek’s fellow students. But viewed close while gently held between two fingers, headbonkers are striking creatures, tiny knots of concentrated metabolism. Their eyes reveal themselves to be entrancing pools of green, prismatic fire.
Such are the hazards and rewards of an effort led by Pawelek’s boss, a UC Berkeley entomologist named Gordon Frankie, to better understand and conserve California’s native bee species. A bearded, inveterate wearer of flowery Hawaiian shirts, Frankie ticks off the names of the eye-popping, Mardi Gras–worthy parade of characters that his team is studying: headbonkers; Agapostemon texanus, whose females are metallic green and have a stately mien; Xylocopa varipuncta, whose males look uncannily like thimble-sized teddy bears (merely describing them brings Pawelek to the brink of swooning); and Melissodes, a genus whose males have a risqué penchant for group sleepovers in cosmos flowers, to name just a few. From afar, it’s difficult to differentiate between the dozens and dozens of species buzzing around the streets and buildings of northern California’s cities. Up close, however, each species reveals its own surprising attributes.
In fact, much of Frankie’s work focuses on bees not in rural areas but in cities. As urban and agricultural development in California has obliterated the native bees’ natural habitat, many of the state’s more than fifteen hundred species of natives have adapted and persevered in cities. Urban environments have proved biologically richer than the vast expanses of rural, agricultural land in California. “It’s like a reservoir of genetic material in these urban environments,” Frankie says. “All [agricultural areas] have is dirt and the crop that farmers want, and then they bring in bees in a box,” creating what he calls “a monoculture in bees.”
In the aftermath of Colony Collapse Disorder and the subsequent disappearance of imported European honeybees from their hives, native bees offer another possible means of crop pollination. But Frankie is concerned less with the bees’ agronomic utility than with buttressing their foothold in California’s cities and with reconnecting the state’s human urban dwellers with the native bees that have persisted, largely unnoticed, in their midst. He is laboring to convince gardeners to see their yards as something more than a bunch of flowers and to repurpose their gardens as food sources for the animals that carry out the ecologically vital process of pollination in the city. That effort feels something like the campaign to create World War II victory gardens — but this time in the service of conserving biodiversity.
FOR YEARS, FRANKIE — who has been researching bees at various sites throughout California since the mid-1970s — would return from the field to his office at Berkeley without giving much thought to urban bees. “But I used to walk around the neighborhoods here, and I noticed that something was going on,” he says. After a colleague brought him a sample of bees from a nearby park, Frankie realized that there was tremendous diversity in the urban environment. “That’s when we started to see that we’d been missing something here all these years.”
That was the start of the Urban Bee Project. Frankie and his colleagues ultimately identified eighty-two species of bees in the Berkeley area, and Frankie began thinking about how to bolster habitat and food sources for bees in the city. In 2003, he started an “experimental bee garden” in an empty lot a block from the university. The garden now stands prominent in a neighborhood of three- and four-story apartment buildings that, on a sunny day, has all the blazing intensity of a car dealer’s lot.
“When we started this garden, it was bare dirt,” Frankie says. “We walked in here with dwarf sunflowers and cosmos, and the bees followed us in.” Since then, Frankie and company have been using the garden as a sort of test vehicle to determine which plants — and what mixes of flowers — are most attractive to native bees.
“We have a really good idea of what works now,” Frankie says. Today, the experimental bee garden has a smattering of non-native plants that the bees like, but the team has discovered that native bees are six times more likely to visit the native plants with which they have evolved.
Salvias, or sages, seem to be manna for native bees, but the list of sure bets runs long and includes California poppies, buckwheats, seaside daisies, goldenrod, coreopsis, chamomile, and palo verde trees, among many others.
“The relationship between the bee and the plant is specific enough that you can say, ‘Poppies are going to attract these kinds of bees; salvias are going to attract these kinds of bees,'” Frankie says. “That’s one of the more exciting findings that’s emerged from our studies — that we can actually predict what you can find in your garden, if you plant the right plants.”
ONE OF THE MOST RECENT ENLISTEES in the effort to make more room for bees is Sharon Patrician, a regal sixty-six year old who tends a section of the Sacramento cemetery called Hamilton Square. Dressed in capris, a floppy straw hat, and a bright yellow shirt, Patrician is an able raconteur of the graveyard’s stories: about how, in the 1800s, the graves had to be fenced to keep out the cattle that would graze here; about the enterprising individual who excavated cadavers and parceled them out for science — only to eventually be laid to rest here himself; and about the young widow of a Gold Rush financier who, as Patrician puts it, had him “installed” in grand fashion before going on to burn through his amassed millions. “We know,” Patrician says, with her eyebrows shrewdly arched, “where the bodies are buried around here.”
As she works in the cemetery garden, Patrician occasionally crosses paths with visitors who clearly have been drawn by the place’s macabre allure. But one day two summers ago, she happened upon a bearded man in wraparound sunglasses who was carrying an insect net and wearing a Hawaiian shirt. “When he told me what he was doing, I was just thrilled,” she says.
Frankie convinced Patrician to let his research assistants, like Pawelek, use the cemetery as a place to do bee counts and determine how frequently various bees visit promising varieties of “target plants.” He also helped Patrician make the garden a place where bees can get more of what they need to thrive.
For a native California bee that has finally emerged from hibernation, a typical garden can be as perilous as Dante’s nine circles of hell. Synthetic pesticides can be lethal to bees, and classic garden staples can mean starvation. “Roses,” Frankie grouses, “are horrible”: the petals of domesticated rose blossoms are bunched too tightly to allow the bees to get to nectar and pollen.
The professor has turned into a sort of Johnny Appleseed of bee-friendly plants. He frequently looks for promising candidates in local nurseries and rustles up seed in the wild to grow out for gardens. At least once a month, he visits each of seven study sites spread throughout the state, including a four-day road trip to cities along the central and southern California coast, and distributes plants to gardeners along the way.
Frankie encourages gardeners to plant varieties of flowers that will bloom successively throughout the entire year. “We have seasons of bees,” he says, noting that by watering and by cutting the dead heads off flowers, gardeners can push their plants through consecutive seasons to provide various bee species with a continuous source of food. “If [gardeners] do their gardening correctly, you can get extended flowering out of a lot of the species that you couldn’t get in the wild,” Frankie says, pointing up the example of encelia, a bush sunflower. “It usually only flowers in April, and then it conks out. But if you water it and tend to it, the damn thing will flower all year.”
In the Hamilton Square garden in Sacramento, Sharon Patrician is trying out a desert willow that Frankie brought her. “This has been a new learning experience for me,” she says. “All the plants, I’m familiar with. It’s just that I didn’t think about growing them as a particular food source.”
MATCHING FLOWERS to the bees’ dietary requirements is just one trick. Another is providing bees with suitable places to nest. Unlike hive-dwelling honeybees, most natives nest alone in the ground — and need patches of bare ground in which to dig their nests. It’s almost impossible for bees to nest in turf, but Frankie reserves a special vitriol for what he calls mulch madness: “Bees cannot dig through mulch,” he says, “and they can’t dig through what we call Black Plastic Insanity” — plastic sheet mulch. “These mulchers,” he says with exasperation, “are getting crazy.”
Patrician admits to being a recovering mulcher herself.
(“I used to mulch four inches deep,” she grimaces.) But she has since allowed the grassy paths between the graves to become the turf equivalent of a threadbare rug, with large patches of bare dirt. “For the bees who nest underground, the paths are perfect because they don’t get disturbed — we’re not ripping up the pathways or anything like that,” she says. “And in the spring, you’ll see these little tiny holes in hard ground” where newly emerged bees have crawled out to the world above.
After a female bee emerges from the nest in which she was born, she typically lives only three to four weeks. She will mate almost immediately. “The males emerge first,” says Robbin Thorp, a colleague of Frankie’s who is an emeritus professor at the University of California, Davis, “so they’re Johnny-on-the-spot when the females come out.”
Once they’ve mated, Thorp says, females will “forage a little bit, just to get some flight fuel — some nectar — in their system, and then they’ll start digging a nest.” Below ground, a bee will hollow out individual brood cells for each egg that she’ll lay. Then she will leave the nest again to collect the food she’ll use to nourish her offspring. The bee travels from flower to flower gathering both pollen and nectar, and pollinating plants as she goes. The sugary nectar provides energy, while pollen provides concentrated amounts of vitamins, protein, fat, and oils. “It’s the staff of life for the developing larva,” says Frankie.
Inside the nest, the mother fashions what Frankie variously refers to as “pollen loaves” or “bee bread.” She packs one into each brood cell, lays an egg on top of the loaf, and then seals off the chamber and moves to the next brood cell. Once the wormlike larvae hatch, they spend up to a year underground feeding on their pollen loaves. As winter nears, they slow their metabolisms and “hold over” in a pre-pupal stage. Then, as the weather warms again, they pupate, transform into fully formed bees, and emerge into the world aboveground, to begin the cycle anew.
FRANKIE AND HIS COLLEAGUES have launched a website with recommendations for bee-friendly plants and garden practices (http://nature.berkeley.edu/urbanbeegardens), and they’re also working on a book, due out in 2009. Several Bay Area nurseries have put together their own menus of bee-friendly plants, and gardeners like Patrician are spreading the word to visitors as well. “I’ve begun to incorporate into my spiel that people really should be planting things that benefit the urban wildlife,” she says. “If the insects disappear, we’re in a big heap of trouble.”
Still, she says that there’s an uneasy tension — even among members of the board of directors that oversees the cemetery — between the impulses to maintain a garden that’s good for bees and a garden that looks like what people expect. “They’ve been at me to come in here and sod all these paths,” Patrician sighs. “And I say, ‘No way. Over my dead body. I will not . . . sod . . . these . . . paths.'”
Back at the experimental bee garden in Berkeley, Frankie concedes that the study of urban bees is still very much in its infancy. In the past, they “collected bees at study sites, made a list, and that was it,” he says. “There’s a small [body of] literature on diversity already, but no one is yet starting to make any sense out of it.”
He also admits that the effort to popularize bee-friendly gardening can be at odds with the 1970s-era Sunset magazine vision of California, which still holds some currency among many of the state’s residents. Partway through an abbreviated rant, Frankie’s ire settles on the “low-level gardening culture” in the city of Paso Robles. “All they’ve got there,” he says, “is dried-up lawns and privet hedge” — a plant he describes as “an awful thing you put in the ground when nothing else will grow.”
As Frankie talks, he’s occasionally interrupted by Pawelek’s exclamations as various bees fly in and out of the garden (“Ooh! Baby halictid!”). That’s the sort of engagement that Frankie hopes more people will develop as they tend to their own gardens at home. “If somebody puts a name on a bee and tells you a little bit about it, I think there’s a lot of aesthetic pleasure in knowing that you’ve got a bee, and you can see it in your garden,” he says. “People want to have a story that goes with it, and it’s our work to tell people what these stories are.”
Frankie and his team have taken their bee-awareness program into local elementary schools, giving presentations in which the highlight is invariably the point at which kids learn how to identify male bees and catch them with their hands. Watching Frankie talk about how stingers work, it’s easy to imagine him standing before a gaggle of eight year olds. “The stinger is an egg-laying apparatus,” he says. “If [the females] wanna lay an egg” — he makes a motion like he’s turning an imaginary knob on the side of his head — “they turn on the egg-laying thing. If they wanna send down venom to sting somebody” — he dials the other way — “venom!”
When Frankie makes his four-day trips down the coast and back, he frequently cruises neighborhoods to look for promising gardens. In the town of Soquel, near Santa Cruz, he happened across Kimberly Carter Gamble, who, acting on intuition alone, had assembled a menu of plants in her home garden that was perfect for native bees. “I first saw this garden on a foggy day, and I knew it was gonna be good,” Frankie says. “We finally had a chance to go out on a good day, and it was just dynamite. It was just abuzz with bees.”
Gamble says both the flowers and the bees have proven to be star garden-party attractions. “I had this tower-of-jewels this year — it grows in a very blatant spiral as it opens up — and I think there were sixty bees at a time,” she says. “It was a particularly fun one, because the bees were so laden with the pollen that they could hardly take off.” This year, on Frankie’s recommendation, Gamble is going to work linaria, coreopsis, and bidens into her garden.
And so goes Frankie’s quest: braving the perils of the headbonkers and reeling in converts to the belief that a garden can serve a bigger purpose than simply prettying a yard. Frankie says that every time he makes a visit to someone’s garden, he learns more about how to see the world as a bee does.
“You know when you walk into a restaurant and you can tell within a matter of seconds whether or not it’s any good?” he says. “Same thing with a garden: you walk in and you say, ‘Hup! They got this, they got that. Let’s stay a while. Let’s see what happens.'”
This is great! I’m very encouraged by people doing this type of work. I’ve been following the reports from the research on Colony Collapse Disorder, and with all the multiple stresses on honeybees from pollution, pesticides, parasites, high-fructose corn syrup feeding, shortened hibernation, and extensive trucking, single-year lifespans has become the norm. With our industrial mindset prostituting our agrarian past,it seems crucial at this point for regular citizens to step up and make a contribution to our diverse pollinators, and knowing the dietary requirements for the pollinators in a specific region makes the effort pay off better than going by hit-or-miss gardenmaking decisions. This is good; I’m a professional landscape gardener, and try to incorporate habitat requirements whenever possible, even to overriding clients’ ideas at times (whoops!). Thanks for a great article.
I live in Austin, Texas. Last year we didn’t have too many bees in my neighborhood and friends who live out in the country had NO visible bees – and gardens that didn’t produce well in some cases. I was really worried but this year, fortunately, it has been different. A couple of weeks ago a neighbor had a beautiful plum tree in bloom. It was covered with bees! We all stood around admiring the tree and applauding the bees! I am inspired to find some bee-friendly flowers for my balcony garden. Thanks for the good article.
What a wonderful story! When I lived for a year in SoCal and discovered slugs eating my annuals (it was a rental) I went to the garden centers asking for plants that slugs did not like. They kept pointing out the slug poison. I ended up buying as many annuals (and a few perennials) as I could fit into the place, so the slugs couldn’t possibly consume them all. Then when I saw aphids, I went and bought ladybugs. Unfortunately, I hadn’t thought that as soon as they left my garden, they would be poisoned everywhere else.
Gardens were really disappointing down there, all trimmed, pruned, and lifeless. Hopefully people can be taught to enjoy life again.
I loved this article–it is so inspiring. I wish I had known about this years ago. I have been amazed at how bees can work flower-boxes six floors up in the middle of a city–and now I understand better how important they truly are. I’m slowly becoming a bee maniac!
Wonderful article! 85 varieties of bees – who knew? NOW, does he have any information on Colorado gardens? I’ve been noticing native bees in my yard, but not knkowing how to tell one bee from another I’ve assumed they were all the same. Now I’llhave to look closer!
After going back to the beginning of the article I was struck by the picture of rows and rows of DEAD bees. Not very inspiring – even though the article was.
British researchers and citizen scientists have also found that gardens play an important role in helping native bee species. You can information about the British Bumblebee Nest Survey at http://www.rothamsted.ac.uk/pie/BumblebeeSurvey/Report.html
This is in response to Kathryn Alexander’s comments about all the dead bees. We only collect a few bees from each place to get a representable sample of the diversity. Believe me, we all love bees more than anything and we hate to kill them, but this helps us study each area and come to know what kinds of bees are in different places and what we can do to help attract these bees in the future. If anyone would like more info about how they can attract native bees to their garden, visit our website at http://nature.berkeley.edu/urbanbeegardens/
If you don’t live in California try using more native plants in your garden because the bees will be more apt to use those over showy ornamentals.
Nice website for the Berkeley Urban Bee Project. With regard to the section about Bees and Weeds: in my gardening business, I’ve developed (sort of) something I call living mulch, as I know the moisture-retaining properties of mulch, but don’t care for the look all that much. I prefer a more natural look, and as nature grows almost nothing with bare space in between, I like to have things growing between the planted specimens. I also noticed, a few years ago when we were in a pretty bad drought summmer, that the beds that I hadn’t gotten completely weeded out were doing better than the totally “clean” ones. The difference in temperature from day to night was condensing just enough moisture to keep the soil from becoming baked dust, and the baby weed seedlings were also protecting the roots from baking, as well. So I started leaving the little weedlings in the beds until they got too happy and rambunctious, and would weed them out at that point. Also, I just happen to love the look of a lot of them in their immature stages, as they have beautiful foliage, and many of them have flowers that are just as exquisite as any of the intended species in the gardens, so I’d leave them till after they flowered, then pull them out before they could set seed. It makes it difficult when training garden help, since they have to learn all the perennials and all the weeds, and tell the difference so they know when to weed out what, etc., but I think it makes for a much more interesting garden. And I always notice which flowers the bees like, and the butterflies, and save specimens for them. I also notice which plants produce seeds that the birds like, and refrain from deadheading or cutting those in the fall. It’s an easy enough thing to do for my little friends. And I’ve never been stung while working in my gardens.
Using your California natives list as a prototype, I’ll put together a list of natives for the Northeast US and other non-native favourites of the bees in all my gardens here, and make it available to people if anybody’s interested. (Give me a minute, though, as I’ve got other projects underway right now, too.)
Nori, a list like you propose would be great, and I’m sure many Orion readers would welcome it. Thanks for offering!
Two pointers. Check out Prof Doug Tallamy’s wonderful book, “Bringing Nature Home: How Native Plants Sustain Wildlife in Our Gardens.” He does a great job of explaining how important our planting choices in urban and suburban environments are to native biodiversity. Also, of interest might be Gretchen LeBuhn’s work on native bees and her Great Sunflower Project. Tallamy is a professor at University of Delaware and LeBuhn is a professor at San Francisco State University.
I had a landscape business in the Dallas, TX, area for 10 years (aka the 90’s). I encouraged customers
to allow native bee colonies on their property to remain unmolested. After some instruction and “sales pitch,” almost everyone agreed. Those that did were delighted with how much better their plants did and also became more conservative about using chemicals in general. My grandfather and uncle kept bees & have had them in my life for 64 years. I’m convinced various impacts related to global warming contribute to (if not literally cause) colony collapse disorder.
On Colony Collapse Disorder: In addition to the “change” stress affecting species as their environmental provisions change around them, and more severe weather patterns affect them (such as bees not able to fly and forage during rain, and a prolonged rain event might happen right at the time their food plants are in bloom), I have a list of stress factors that, in combination, must contribute: the varroa mites that infect virtually all hive populations in the US; the pesticides that are used to “control” these parasitic mites and a number of other parasitic mites (and the amounts of pesticides used in the hives is increasing over time since they started being used 2-3 decades ago); use of synthetic neonicotinoid pesticides, which cause symptoms that would explain the disappearance of bees from the hive; several viruses, most significantly the Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus (identified first in Israel, hence the name, in 2002) that causes wing shivering and then paralysis and death outside the hive, and which has been found in the research hives that also have the varroa mites; the trucking of the hives cross-country starting in Feb. for the California almond crop, meaning the hive populations’ winter hibernation is cut short; and the feeding of high-fructose corn syrup to the bees, which may be as impossible for them to metabolize as it is for us. (Man, is it any wonder that these little creatures are having a hard time?) When I was researching this particular topic for a piece I was writing on CCD, I looked up the pesticides used in the state of Vermont, looking for a particular pesticide, I found that even in this little state, we use many tens of thousands of pounds of lethal substances on our field crops annually! Nationwide, we must be throwing around up to a million pounds every year – (insert big, horrified, frustrated sigh here). Anyway, I guess this is why we have to make sure we have the natives in our gardens, right?
Finally, someplace to send people when they look at me as if I’m from Mars when I explain our disappearing honey bees aren’t native. Last summer we’d seen almost none but one day I looked up at a sumac tree (native here) that was covered with bees. Not a European one in the bunch that I could tell, but I counted five different species that I couldn’t identify.
Thanks for explaining the pinned bees in the photos. I was also wondering about the corn pictured (in the magazine). Perhaps the garden isn’t just for the bees benefit?
One more thing about mulch; check out the article in the current Mother Jones about cypress forests being cleared-just for mulch.
Yes, unfortunately they picked a weird picture for the magazine of some of us shoveling soil, but the background was the corn field, not our beautiful garden! We share a space with other researchers and the corn is part of that, not our bee garden. Our garden is also certified as a wildlife habitat through the National Wildlife Federation, so our garden is home not only to bees, but to many birds, hummingbirds, butterflies, and even rodents!
Okay, I’m having trouble submitting URLs for websites with good native bee information and native plants; I keep getting a page telling me that I’m “not authorized to perform this action” so I typed the blah blah message to get the exact wording, and THAT went through! Sorry. This site won’t let me put those URLs in my message, but I’ll give them to you if you e-mail. Put “native bee sites” in the subject line.
Wild Flora (post #7), In the confusion of trying to figure out why this site won’t let me post (I’m apparently “not authorized to perform this action”)URLs to other websites, I’ve found yours, and it appears that the information I was trying to make available (the list of native flowering plants in the northeastern U.S.) is actually available on your fine website. So there you go.
Wonderful, wonderful article. I am emailing this around. It would be great to know if there are similar projects going on in other places.
Here are two websites about native bees:
http://attra.ncat.org/attra – pub/nativebee.html
These are very informative about native bees in northeastern North America. See next post for a website for native plants in this same area.
Hre’s the website for the New England Wildflower Society’s list of available native plants:
These sites cover the information I said I’d make available for the northeast.
Science Daily has a research article “Creating Homes That Please America’s Wild Bees” at:
I live in Orinda Ca and I have a bank of native CA sages of different varieties in full flower. My plants of Salvia sonomensis have 5 species of native bees as well as honey bees all over it. There is a wonderful hybrid sage called ‘Winnifred Gilman’ that fills the entire garden with fragrance when it blooms as well as nurturing bees.
I want to save native bees but really need to relocate the colony that has taken up residence in a hole in our backyard. The bees attack and sting us anytime we need to trim trees or work on the hill near (10-20 feet away) the nest.
Any idea on how to relocate an underground colony that is very aggressive?
I love this article, I am trying to encourage families to lead children in a discovery of urban landscapes and an appreciation for nature. This site has offered a great deal of insight on both levels. Besides I live in Sacramento and just started taking walks through the same cemetery that was spoken of in this article
Check out Dr. Gordon Frankie’s new book, California Bees and Blooms: A Guide for Gardeners and Naturalists, for the latest on his groundbreaking research on native bees!